1 October –
1800 – San Ildefonso, Spain. Third treaty of San Ildefonso, a closely guarded secret, gives Louisiana territory back to France. (See 21 March 1801.) The project to re-acquire Louisiana was engineered by Talleyrand in response to John Adams administration seeking closer ties with Great Britain, and passing the Alien and Sedition Acts, aimed largely at pro-French societies in the United States. The treaty is “Done at San Ildefonso the 9th Vendemiaire 9th year of the French Republic.” The secrecy of the negotiations and the delay in transfer of ownership gave the Spanish an opportunity to once more close the port of New Orleans.
1803 – Clarksville, IN. Governor and Commander in Chief of the Indiana Territory William Henry Harrison issues a license to William Clark to operate a ferry service between Clarksville and the Kentucky side opposite: He the said William Clark Engages to keep at the said Ferry yard and Sufficient Boats at all Lawful hours for the Passage of all families with their horses Carts waggons Carriages Cattle &c. and for which he is to receive such toll only as may be Established for his ferry by the Court of quarter Session for the said County and the Said William Clark is and to be Entered as Bond as the Law directs for the Professional Keeping of said Ferry. [Potts, p. 79]
1883 – Louisville, KY. Richard Waters, of Hermitage Stock Farm, Oldham County, KY, purchases 369 acres, including the residence of Locust Grove, from the Paul family for $25,000. The property will remain in the Waters family until sold at auction 24 July 1961 to settle the estate of Mr. Lily Scott Waters. [Potts, p. 117; p. 127]
2 October –
1795 – aboard La Vigilance, near New Madrid, MO. Lt. William Clark, on a reconnaissance mission for General Anthony Wayne, reports to his superior officer, that he has delivered the general’s demand that Spain withdraw from their newly established post at Chickasaw Bluffs (Memphis). He writes: I then delivered your Excellency’s Letter, and informed the Governor of the treaty of amity and commerce which had been concluded between Great Britain and the United States, and of its being ratified by the President, in which Treaty, Great Britain had guaranteed to the United States the free navigation of the Mississippi, at which he expressed much surprise. [Potts, p. 74] As the port of New Orleans belonged to Spain, Manuel Gayoso de Lemor, governor of Natchez, might well have been surprised that Britain presumed to grant free commerce of the river.
1805 – Clarksville, IN. Josiah Espy keeps a journal of his western travels, which he will publish as Memorandums of a Tour made by Josiah Espy in the States of Ohio and Kentucky and Indiana Territor in 1805. On this day he records: I had to pleasure of seeing this celebrated warrior [George Rogers Clark] at his lonely cottage seated at Clark’s Point. This point is situated at the upper end of the village and opposite the lower rapid, commanding a full and delightful view of the falls, particularly the zigzag channel which is only navigated at low water. The General has not taken much pains to iprove this commanding and beautiful spot, having only raised a small cabin, but it is capable of being made one of the handsomest seats in the world.
… General Clark has now become frail and rather helpless, but there are the remains of great dignity and manliness in his countenance, person and deportment, and I was struck on seeing him with (perhaps) a fancied likeness to the great and immortal Washington. [Potts, p. 83]
3 October –
1789 – Louisville, KY. TheKentucky Gazettereprints William Hunter’s “Observations on the Bones, Commonly Supposed to be Elephant’s Bones, Which Have Been Found Near the River Ohio in America.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society58 (1769): 34-45. Brothers William and John Hunter, London’s leading naturalists, declared that the mastodon teeth and tusks unquestionably belonged to “either a carnivorous or a mixed kind” of animal. (See 20 February 1782; 10 September 1807.) [Potts, p. 42]
1793 – Orange County, VA. Ambrose Madison dies of yellow fever at the family home, Montpellier. He has surveyed land in Jefferson County, Kentucky, for Colonel Richard Taylor and Major William Croghan. He has never given either a deed. [Renau, p. 65]
1793 – Louisville, KY. George Rogers Clark writes to Edmond Charles Genet: I have no doubt but the greatest part of the Government of Louisiana will fall into our hands without a probability of the spaniards ever recovering of it and by proper conduct increas our force by making friends of the people. There is no knowing whare our carear will stop. This kind of Warefare is my Ellement. I have served a long aprintiship to it…I find that I shall have to be very circumspect in my conduct while in this cuntry and guard against doing any thing that would injure the U States or giving offence to their Govermet. I shall then be at liberty to give full Scope to the authority of the Commission you did me the Honor to sent…I will surmount every obstacle and pave my way to Glory which is my object. [Potts, p. 72] George Rogers Clark was leaving the United States.
4 October –
1777 – Germantown, PA. Battle of Germantown, afterward General Howe burns Monkton Hall. [Renau, p. 19]
1830 – Louisville, KY. Dr. John Croghan proves George Rogers Clark’s will. It is recorded in Jefferson County Will Book 2, p. 412. (See 16 March 1970; 11 May 1792; 15 September 1795; 15 August 1796; 5 October 1796; 18 August 1797; 14 December 1797; 28 July 1803; 5 November 1815; 10 July 1826; 8 May 1835.) [Potts, p. 93-4]
5 October –
1796 – Louisville, KY. George Rogers Clark registers his power of attorney for his brother William in Jefferson County Circuit Court. (See 16 March 1970; 11 May 1792; 15 September 1795; 15 August 1796; 18 August 1797; 14 December 1797; 28 July 1803; 5 November 1815; 10 July 1826; 4 October 1830; 8 May 1835.) [Potts, p. 93-4]
6 October –
7 October –
1763 – London, England. Promulgation of Proclamation of 7 October 1763. This edict prohibits white settlement beyond the continental divide of the Appalachians until officials in London can purchase land from the American Indians and establish an orderly system for its occupation. It plays well in Parliament; it is hardly noticed in North America.
1793 – Kentucky. Andre Michaux to George Rogers Clark: Only I inquire for…money of many Merchants at Lexings [Lexington, KY] and they promise to me as much as they could give me in the time. M. Brown [John Brown] was very much informed of our affairs. He desire it could be effected. [Potts, p. 197, note 18] Brown had recommended Michaux to Clark as a botanist, interested in the plants of the American west. [Potts, p. 72] Was he naive, or disingenuous?
1805 – Louisville, KY. The Kentucky Gazette publishes “An Act to Incorporate the Indiana Canal Company.” Incorporating only three weeks after Jared Brooks published his analysis that the southern route would be more cost-effective, were these early Hoosiers relying on the prestige of the members of their board of directors, viz. John Brown, Aaron Burr, George Rogers Clark, Marston Green Clark, William Croghan, Jonathan Dayton, Davis Floyd, John Gwathmey, John Harrison, Benjamin Hovey, Josiah Stephens and Samuel C. Vance, to secure the route? (See 17 September 1805.) [Potts, p. 81]
8 October –
1830 – New York, NY. Winfield Scott writes to Thomas Sidney Jesup concerning George Croghan, whom he has not seen since June: When his habits are good he is never in the same place with me a day without calling… There is no man, out of the Colonel’s immediate family more devoted to him than I am. Nay I feel for him as much affection as brothers usually bear to each other. He is honourable & affectionate, gallant & high-minded. There were but few individuals in the late war who shed equal glory on his country. If you think, & his other immediate friends think, that a promise of reform can be rlied upon, I shall most gladly do every thing in my power to sustain him. [Potts, p. 103-4]
1839 – Kentucky. John Croghan purchases Mammoth Cave, for $10,000. Deed from Franklin and Louise F. Gorin to John Croghan recorded Edmonson County Deed Book D, p. 47. He intends to make it into a tourist attraction and to establish a tuberculosis sanitarium. [Potts, p. 106; p. 204, note 116]
9 October –
1779 – Savannah, GA. Richard Clough Anderson Sr. wounded in battle; also suffers a rupture in fall from a parapet. [EL, p. 37]
1822 – The National Intelligencer Louisville Public Advertiser of William Croghan Sr. “independent country gentleman:” He was one of those patriots, who raised this country to honor and to empire. … During the whole of that memorable conflict which resulted in the dismemberment of one, and the creation of another empire, he discharged his duties of an ardent and gallant officer in the dangers, as well as the glories of that eventful period, he largely participated. (See 21 September 1822.) [Potts, p. 99]
10 October –
11 October –
1784 – Louisville, KY. William Croghan records in his diary that he proposed to establish a town at the mouth of the Cumberland River. He had submitted the proposal to the governor of Virginia in August, two months before he surveyed the land for himself; however the project was dropped. (See 1 Nov 1789; 21 Nov 1789; 25 Mar 1805; 4 Nov 1805.) [Potts, p. 69]
12 October –
1848 – Louisville, KY. Diana M. Bullitt recalled for Lyman C. Draper: I learned from his mother, with whom I lived a great deal, that Gen. Clark was very fond of history and geography and the study of nature from his earliest youth. When I lived with him, he used to caution me against novel-reading, and urged me to read history. The first book he ever gave me to read was the Spectator. I heard his mother say that he was the arbiter of the boys’ disputes at school. [Potts, p. 21]
13 October –
14 October –
1803 – Louisville, KY. Meriwether Lewis arrives. [EL, p. 199-200]
15 October –
1773 – Louisville, KY. (Uncle) George Croghan reports in a letter that Indians are suspicious of Captain Bullitt and Captain Thompson. [Renau, p. 17]
1808 – Clarksville, IN. George Rogers Clark writes, probably to Jonathan: The finishing my house hath been more expensive than I expected. I yet owe them hands some money. I am at present run short. If you could conveniently lend me about fifty Dollars for the purpose of paying the hands alluded to, you will do me some favours. I can return you the money at new years. P.S. I you can honour this note send it by Kitt. [Potts, p. 83]
1827 – Louisville, KY. Locust Grove. Mary Carson Croghan dies. Her ledger tomb is inscribed: Beneath this slab are deposited the remains of Mrs. Mary Carson Croghan (late of Pittsburgh) who departed this life October 15thA.D. 1827 in the 24thyear of her age…also her infant daughter Mary O’Hara who expired July 18thA.D. 1826 in the 9thmonth of her age [Potts, p. 100]
16 October –
1826 – Louisville, KY. Richard Clough Anderson, Sr. dies. [EL 36]
17 October –
1806 – Owensboro, KY. Colonel Joseph Hamilton Daveiss writes to George Rogers Clark: I recollect with signal pleasure and advantage my short visit with you. I long to repeat it, and draw a little more out of that treasure of information which is to be found no where else… the great battle of Sandy island which gave the vital blow to the balance of power on the Ohio. You are the only person I have found who has duly appreciated the traditions of these people; the only one who has thought them worthy preservation.
Clark had shared with Daveiss the history told to him by Jean Baptiste Ducoyne, chief of the Kaskaskias that their ancient fortifications were the houses of his fathers. Francis son of Tobacco, the Piankasaw chief, told Clark that the ancient inhabitants of Kentucky had been annihilated by the present Indians’ forefathers at the Falls of Ohio on Sandy Island. Clark himself confirmed that there was a burial ground several hundred yards long at Clarksville; and he noted that in the Indian language “Kentucke” meant “river of blood.” [Potts, p. 85]
18 October –
1803 – Lexington, KY. Attorney Allan Bowie Magruder writes to George Rogers Clark: At your leisure, you will Commit to writing such observations, as you think proper. Could you bestow some attention on this business, it will not only contribute to a detail of the important events within that Country which you so faithfully defended, but Confer an obligation on. [Potts, p. 85]
19 October –
1846 – Louisville, KY. Fortunatus Cosby Sr. dies. He is buried in Cave Hill Cemetery. [EL, p. 223]
20 October –
1810 – Philadelphia, PA. John Croghan, studying medicine, has learned that Joseph Hamilton Daveiss has requested the papers of George Rogers Clark for his own history of Kentucky. John strenuously urges his father to recruit a secretary for his uncle, as surely George Rogers Clark is the only person suited to tell his remarkable story. John writes: This being the case, let him get an amanuensis, and by that means impart all the information he knows, relative to this subject. [Richard Clough Anderson Jr. is] an intelligent young man…[who] would I expect very willingly act in this capacity. Having obtained the facts we have only to present them to some able writer who will do the subject the justice it deserves. [Potts, p. 89]
1797 – Louisville, KY. Ann Heron Croghan born. [Potts, p. 67]
21 October –
1797 – Louisville, KY. Ann Heron Croghan born, Locust Grove.
1832 – Paris, France. Charles Croghan dies. He is buried in Pere La Chaise Cemetery. (See 23 October 1832; 27 October 1832.) [Potts, p. 102]
22 October –
1795 – Louisville, KY. William Croghan writes to his recently widowered brother-in-law, Richard Clough Anderson: I have the pleasure to inform you that your children are all in better health than when you left them. Bettsey has got pretty well; she is wained; Mrs. Croghan being informed that Kitty was pregnant was apprehensive her milk Injured the Child, therefore had her wained. Scisaly got a very sore mouth, but from Mrs. Clark’s great attention will soon be well, Dick & Nancy are well. [Potts, p. 68]
1834 – Louisville, KY. Mother of George Hancock dies. She is buried in Cave Hill Cemetery. [Potts, p. 203, note 88]
23 October –
1832 – Paris, France. Charles Croghan is buried in Pere La Chaise Cemetery. (See 21 October 1832; 27 October 1832.) [Potts, p. 102]
1860 – St. Louis, MO. The remains of William Clark, and several other family members, are moved from John O’Fallon’s Athlone estate to Bellefontaine Cemetery. [EL, p. 199-200]
24 October –
1833 – Louisville, KY. Locust Grove. George Hancock writes to Thomas Sidney Jesup: The cholera is with us. You can conceive nothing to equal the gloom spread over the country here. No one leaves home. Crops of wheat standing uncut, cornfields abandoned to winds. [Potts, p. 102]
1834 – Pittsburgh, PA. William Croghan Jr. writes to Charles W. Thruston: All my leisure time I devote to my little farm, the buildings & arrangements of grounds. [Potts, p. 101]
25 October –
1795 – Louisville, KY. Jefferson County justice of the peace, Richard Clough Anderson, certifies George Rogers Clark’s $4,805 itemized bill to France. (See 10 November 1794.) [Potts, p. 73]
1818 – Louisville, KY. Zachary Taylor writes to John O’Fallon: Major Croghan…is rapidly declining, and I am fearful, unless a change for the better takes place shortly, he can not stand it long. I have visited him several times since my return. [Potts, p. 99]
26 October –
1793 – John Montgomery writes to George Rogers Clark: I have received a letter from a friend of mine in Kentucky Announcing that you had received a Commission from the National Assembly of France and that you had accepted the same…I have taken the priviledge to acquaint you that I have collected the sentiments of a number of the principle Inhabitants of this Country relative to the matter, and find that it will be in my power to raise several Hundreds for your service in a very short time. [Potts, p. 72]
1803 – Clarksville, IN. Jonathan Clark’s diary: “Rain at Louisville at Clarksville Capt Lewis and Capt Wm. Clark set of on Western tour – went in their boat to Mr. Temples lay Do.”
1832 – Louisville, KY. Serenely confident that the cholera epidemic poses no threat to upper-crust folks, George Hancock writes to Thomas Sidney Jesup that cases in Louisville were mild and the: deaths almost entirely among the dissolute; the Better classes almost without an exception are cured of it. Judge Speed lost 6 nigro men in 2 days. (See 24 October 1833.) [Potts, p. 102]
1871 – Nice, France. Robert Anderson dies.
27 October –
1795 – San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain. Treaty signed between United States and Spain; called Treaty of San Lorenzo, or Pinkney’s Treaty. Thomas Pinckney, America’s special envoy to Spain, has successfully negotiated America’s western borders to be the 31st parallel and the Mississippi River. In other words, the United States acquires what will become the states of Mississippi and Alabama, and has clear access to the Mississippi River. The treaty also included right of deposit in New Orleans, or permission for Americans to ship their products through the port of New Orleans. More than 100,000 westerners, mainly in Kentucky and Tennessee, at last have a viable commercial right-of-way.
1811 – Louisville, KY. George Rogers Clark to William Clark: We hear a great deal respecting the Indians on the Wabash. You have e’er this heard that your three nephews G. Croghan, J. OFallon & I.R. Gwathmey have gone on an expedition against the Indians. [Potts, p. 96]
1813 – Louisville, KY. William Clark stops at Locust Grove to take his wife and their children back to St. Louis. He reports to her brother, George Hancock: Judith has been very industrious since she arrived in the neighbourhood. She has dried several Bushels of Peaches apples & Cheries, ade 30 gallons of excellent Bounce, and as many Preserves as will last us a year, besides barreling up apples, pressing flour &c. for our store of provisions at home. [Potts, p. 90]
1832 – Paris, France. John Croghan writes to Thomas S. Jesup: It is my painful duty to announce to you the death of our beloved Charles. He died on the night of the 21st and was interred in the cemetery of Pere La Chaise on the 23rd…attentions both medical and otherwise were shown him while living and his corpse was followed to the grave by nearly all of the Americans of this city. (See 21 October 1832; 23 October 1832.) [Potts, p. 102]
1855 – Mammoth Cave, KY. Manager Joseph R. Underwood writes to Thomas Sidney Jesup: I have done my best to make that property profitable without success…last year was an unfortunate year and we lost money. I have not settled…for the present year’s operations & do not know how the amounts stand, but from what I hear I expect little or nothing has been made. The prospects ahead are anything but encouraging unless the rail road (which I now suppose will be completed in a few years) shall greatly increase the number of visitors.
I have received a letter from [St.] George Croghan saying that he would leave Barry Town on the 1stof November and will be ready to take a lease or the Mammoth Cave for a long term of years. He also informs me that his own family have consented to it and adds, ‘Mrs. Sitgreaves, Mrs. Blair, and Mrs. Nicholson I have seen and they will consent to the disposal of the Cave in any way.’ He then says, ‘I shall stop in Washington on my way to Kentucky and see Gen’l Jesup on the subject.’ I shall write to him by the mail which bears this and say that he must produce in writing the consent of all the …trusts of full age stating distinctly what kind of contract I am authorized to make with him and also your written consent as natural guardian for your infant children. I shall also tell him plainly that he will find more difficulty I apprehend in managing the property than he supposes. It is believed about the Cave that George is in embarrassed circumstances and he will find great difficulty in hiring hands and purchasing supplies unless he has the money to pay in advance. In case the members of your family wish me to let him have the Cave, they and you must say whether I may contract with him without security.
… I am almost convinced that the best thing that can be done…is to sell their life interests in the profits. I believe they would sell their interest for more than the property cost Dr. Croghan. [Potts, p. 113]
1875 – Louisville, KY. George Hancock dies. He is buried in Cave Hill Cemetery, next to his mother (see 22 October 1834). [Potts, p. 203, note 88]
28 October –
1802 – Clarksville, IN. Captain William Clark is appointed clerk of the board of commissioners for the Illinois Regiment. These are the men who will receive land grants from the 150,000 acres in Clark County. This is in lieu of cash payment for their service during the War for Independence. Captain Clark has also drawn plans a wooden bridge spanning Mill Creek. He is now supervising construction near lot 138, which he owns. [Potts, p. 78]
29 October –
30 October –
31 October –
1803 – The terms of agreement are fulfilled – the United States now owns the Louisiana Territory, “the 31st October, 1803, and 28th year of the independence of the United States.” Argument had run hot and heavy all through the summer. New England Federalists threatened to succeed if the treaty of purchase were agreed to. Westerners threatened to succeed if it were not agreed to. [Potts, p. 77]
1834 – Louisville, KY. John Croghan writes to Thomas Sidney Jesup: My Mother has been very busy in having cotton, wool &c spun for a carpet. It is for her room and judging from the variety of colours it will be a flashy affair. She is in fine health, and there is not a day we do not speak of you all & regret your not being here. [Potts, p. 105]